Delegates to Marrakesh could therefore have done worse than a copy of the Final Act, a definitive new history of the Helsinki negotiations of Canadian historian Michael Cotey Morgan, for their in-flight reading. While it is dangerous to make too precise comparisons between different diplomatic processes after a 40-year hiatus, Morgan notes that negotiators of the Cold War agreement have come to the conclusion that they can only reach “a great diplomatic agreement that had no legal implications of a treaty.” Influential Western commentators have made a fiasco. Dissidents in the communist bloc also scornfully regarded the humanitarian elements of the law. But over time, their main elements – including the principles of freedom of expression, belief and freedom of movement – have been key reference points for those seeking reform. The Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration (GCM) was approved on Monday at an intergovernmental conference in Marrakech, Morocco. In U.S. President Donald Trump`s “America first” base game, the Trump administration withdrew and said participation in the process held U.S. sovereignty and contradicted U.S. immigration policy. Protests against the Brussels agreement became violent and led Belgian Prime Minister Charles Michel to propose his resignation. These governments will try not only to obstruct multilateral diplomacy in New York and other UN cities, but also to less structured forms of international cooperation. Although migration is a particularly polarizing topic, this year`s GCM debate may well anticipate future struggles over multilateralism, with populist leaders refusing even very weak business.
New Zealand: On December 19, 2018, the Labour-led coalition government announced that New Zealand would vote in favour of the pact after being consulted by the Crown Law Office and the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Foreign Minister Winston Peters defended his government`s decision on the grounds that “the pact is not legally binding and does not prevent New Zealand from defining its own migration policy.” The government`s decision was rejected by National Party opposition leader Simon Bridges, who said the pact could not distinguish between legal and illegal migration and limit the ability of future governments to define foreign and immigration policy.   Italy: The Italian government has decided not to participate in the Marrakesh conference and to let Parliament decide whether the pact should be adopted.  Luxembourg: The opposition parties Déi Lénk and PiratenPartei support the pact, while the ADR does not support it.