The 1954 Mutual Security Assistance Pact initially included a military assistance program that included Japan`s acquisition of funds, equipment and services for the country`s essential defence. Although Japan no longer received assistance from the United States in the 1960s, the agreement continued to serve as the basis for purchase and licensing agreements guaranteeing the interoperability of the two nations` weapons and the disclosure to Japan of secret data, including international intelligence reports and secret technical information. To qualify for benefits under the U.S. Social Security program, a worker must have earned enough work credits, known as insurance quarters, to meet the “insurance status requirements” specified. For example, a worker who turns 62 in 1991 or later generally needs 40 calendar terms to be insured for old age pensions. As part of a totalization agreement, SSA accounts for periods of coverage acquired by the worker under the social security program of a contracting country when a worker has some U.S. insurance coverage but is not sufficient to qualify for benefits. Similarly, a country that is a party to an agreement with the United States takes into account a worker`s coverage under the U.S. program when it is required for that country`s social security benefits. If the combined credits in the two countries allow the worker to meet the eligibility requirements, a partial benefit may be paid depending on the proportion of the worker`s total career in the paying country. Unlike the 1951 security pact, the new treaty provided for a ten-year term, after which it could be revoked by both parties with a one-year period. Japan, and the United States of America, accept the right to eliminate U.S. land, air and naval forces within and inside Japan after the peace treaty and treaty enter into force.
These forces can be deployed to contribute to the maintenance of international peace and security in the Far East and to Japan`s security against external armed attacks, including the support provided at the express request of the Japanese government for large-scale internal unrest and unrest to be caused in Japan by the incitement or intervention of outside power or power. Any agreement (with the exception of the agreement with Italy) provides an exception to the territorial rule, which aims to minimize disruptions in the career of workers whose employers temporarily send abroad. Under this exception for “self-employed workers,” a person temporarily transferred to work for the same employer in another country is covered only by the country from which he or she was seconded. A U.S. citizen or resident, for example, who is temporarily transferred by a U.S. employer to work in a contract country, remains covered by the U.S. program and is exempt from host country coverage. The worker and employer only pay contributions to the U.S. program. International social security agreements are beneficial for both those who work today and those whose careers are over.
For current workers, the agreements eliminate the double contributions they might otherwise make to social security plans in the United States and another country. For people who have worked in the United States and abroad and are now retired, disabled or deceased, agreements often result in the payment of benefits to which the worker or family members would not otherwise be entitled.